Currents In Stem Cell Medicine No 2


Currents in Stem Cell Medicine

August 23, 2011. Vol. 1, No 2.

Stem cells have dominated the news for the last two weeks. With Governor Rick Perry announcing that he underwent a treatment in Texas, you’d think that these promising therapies would finally be accepted. Sadly, the media responded by calling into question the right of the Governor to access these therapies and attacked the physician for treating the Governor.  The situation is, of course, more complicated. The underlying issue, however, is not: Physician innovation must be protected and the patient’s right to access appropriate healthcare cannot be denied. The ICMS has publically stated the Society's support of patient rights and the practice of medicine.

It is our belief that the people best qualified to make a health care decision are an informed patient and a licensed and qualified physician. This does not mean that we advocate for a wild west of medicine with no oversight. On the contrary, our mission is to provide peer oversight based upon best practice standards and guidelines written by physicians and scientists. Peer oversight brings transparency, and transparency is what will assure patient safety and protect the practice of medicine.

This oversight begins with you. Join the ICMS and bring your experience and your voice together with other physicians and scientists to define the future of stem cell medicine.

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Latest News from NCBI
Ex vivo-expanded bone marrow CD34(+) for acute myocardial infarction treatment: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells appear to be a promising therapeutic source for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Gene expression analysis of in vitro-expanded cells revealed that endothelial markers were up-regulated during culture. Data suggest that combining basal and expanded BM-derived CD34(+) cells in a specific temporal pattern of administration might represent a promising strategy for a successful cell-based therapy.

The Influence of Hypoxia and Fibrinogen Variants on the Expansion and Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Upon implantation of tissue-engineered scaffolds, hypoxia will occur until neovascularization takes place. In this study, the influence of oxygen tension and naturally occurring fibrinogen variants on adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) expansion and differentiation were determined. Differentiation of ASC toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages was improved in 20% oxygen, whereas 1% oxygen improved chondrogenic differentiation. In conclusion, optimal oxygen concentrations vary for the intended ASC application, and fibrinogen variants, which can be used to influence neovascularization, do not alter ASC behavior. These data emphasize the importance of oxygen concentrations during stem cell growth and differentiation.

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Autologous fat transplantation versus adipose-derived stem cell-enriched lipografts: a study.
Several techniques for lipoinjection have been described in the literature. Recently, the role of adult stem cells in adipose tissue has gained interest. The authors compare autologous fat transplantation to adipose-derived stem cell-enriched lipografts. Adipose-derived stem cell-enriched lipografts produced aesthetically-acceptable results without the need for repeat treatment sessions, which are necessary with autologous fat transplantation.

Chondrogenic differentiation of adult mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic cells in collagen scaffolds.
Many cell types and cellular microenvironments have been explored for articular cartilage tissue engineering. This study compares the potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and P19 embryonic carcinoma cells (ECCs), a pluripotent derivative of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), for cartilage histogenesis in porous collagen scaffolds in vitro. We conclude that MSCs appear to be superior over ECCs for cartilage regeneration under particular culture conditions.

Construction of Artificial Laminae of the Vertebral Arch Using Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplanted in Collagen Sponge.

A rabbit laminectomy model was used to evaluate the efficacy of artificial laminae of vertebral arch using bone marrow-derived osteoblasts transplanted in a collagen sponge to reconstruct an artificial laminae of vertebral arch using bone marrow-derived osteoblasts transplanted in a collagen sponge on a rabbit model. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from the bone marrow in the femur of two-week -old rabbits were obtained by centrifugation and adhesion. The BMSCs were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, which were transplanted into collagen sponge to construct the tissue-engineering bone. A total of 48 rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. The artificial laminae of the vertebral arch successfully formed four weeks after the operation in Group C; CT examination at four weeks showed that the new laminae of vertebral arch was formed, and that the vertebral canal was intact.Conclusion. The artificial laminae of the vertebral arch can be successfully constructed using tissue engineering of transplanted BMSCs.

Potential benefits of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for wound healing.
It is becoming increasingly evident that select adult stem cells have the capacity to participate in repair and regeneration of damaged and/or diseased tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells have been among the most studied adult stem cells for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including wound healing. Areas covered: Mesenchymal stem cell features potentially beneficial to cutaneous wound healing applications are reviewed. Expert opinion: Given their potential for in vitro expansion and immune modulatory effects, both autologous and allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells appear to be well suited as wound healing therapies. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells derived from young healthy donors could have particular advantage over autologous sources where age and systemic disease can be significant factors

VEGF expression in mesenchymal stem cells promotes bone formation of tissue-engineered bones.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo vascularization and bone formation activity of tissue-engineered bone constructed using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Based on our results, expression of the VEGF165 gene was detected using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry following transfection and 4 weeks of selection. The co-cultured NHAC- and VEGF-transfected MSCs had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared to the controls (P<0.05). In the mice that received the tissue-engineered bone xenografts, clumps of cartilage cells, irregular bone-like tissue and microvessels were observed. The growth of these structures progressed with time. In the control mice, however, only small amounts of bone-like and fibrotic tissue were observed. The differences between the control and experimental groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, VEGF165‑transfected bone marrow MSCs promotes vascularization of tissue-engineered bone and ectopic osteogenesis.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for systemic sclerosis: history and current status.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains one of the last severe autoimmune disease with a poor prognosis and modest response to immunosuppressive therapy. Mortality in severe diffuse disease with internal organ involvement is elevated. Autologous hematopoietic transplantation (HSCT) has emerged in the last decade as a promising disease-modifying treatment. Two out of three randomized trials of autologous HSCT for SSc have been concluded: the nonmyeloablative American Systemic Sclerosis Immune Suppression versus Transplant, and Autologous Stem cell Transplantation International Scleroderma. The myeloablative Scleroderma Cyclophosphamide versus Transplant instead is still recruiting patients. The soon expected results from these trials should clarify the role of autologous HSCT in the challenging management of severe SSc.

Autologous bone marrow stem cell intralesional transplantation repairing bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

Bisphosphonate - related osteonecrosis of the JAW (BRONJ) is a well known side effect of bisphosphonate therapies in oncologic and non oncologic patients. Since to date no definitive consensus has been reached on the treatment of BRONJ, novel strategies for the prevention, risk reduction and treatment need to be developed. We report a 75 year old woman with stage 3 BRONJ secondary to alendronate and pamidronate treatment of osteoporosis who was unresponsive to recommended treatment of the disease. The authors performed autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation into the BRONJ lesion of the patient. A week later the residual spongostan was removed and two weeks later resolution of symptoms was obtained. Then the lesion improved with progressive superficialization of the mucosal layer and CT scan performed 15 months later shows improvement also of bone via concentric ossification: so complete healing of BRONJ (stage 0) was obtained in our patient, and 30 months later the patient is well and without signs of BRONJ.

Enhanced skin wound healing by a sustained release of growth factors contained in platelet-rich plasma.

Platelet-rich plasma(PRP) contains growth factors that promote tissue regeneration. The release of fibroblast growth factor 2, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and vascular endothelial growth factor contained in PRP from HCF was sustained for a longer period than those from PRP, calcium-activated PRP (C-PRP), or a mixture of fibrin and PRP (F-PRP). Treatment of full-thickness skin wounds in mice with HCF-PRP resulted in much faster wound closure as well as dermal and epidermal regeneration at day 12 compared to treatment with either C-PRP or F-PRP. Enhanced skin regeneration observed in HCF-PRP group may have been at least partially due to enhanced angiogenesis in the wound beds. Therefore, this method could be useful for skin wound treatment.

Application of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Enhanced Bone Regeneration in Grafted Sinus.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on new bone formation and remodeling after grafting of the maxillary sinus with an algae-derived hydroxyapatite AlgOss/C Graft/Algipore on fourteen consecutive patients with severely atrophic. After an average healing period of 7.1 months bone samples were retrieved. Patients from a former consecutive series treated without PRP served as control group. In the coronal specimen portions, mean values for newly formed bone area, biomaterial area and marrow space of 32.2% ± 10.4%, 20.1% ± 13.0%, and 47.7% ± 8.5% were found with PRP, respectively. In the control group the corresponding values were 27.6% ± 13.4%, 20.3% ± 12.9%, and 52.1% ± 9.3%. In the apical specimen portions in the PRP group, the newly formed bone area, biomaterial area, and marrow space was 25.7% ± 15.0%, 23.4% ± 14.9%, and 50.9% ± 12.5%, respectively. Statistical evaluation of the samples proved significantly better overall resorption of algae-derived hydroxyapatite AlgOss/C Graft/Algipore and increased new bone formation when PRP was used, especially in the apical region.

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Currents in Stem Cell Medicine is a bi-monthly publication of the ICMS.