Currents In Stem Cell Medicine 4

Currents in Stem Cell Medicine
September 27, 2011. Volume 1, Number 4.

News from the ICMS

4th Annual International Congress on Regenerative and Cell Based Medicine

The ICMS is now accepting abstracts for its 4th annual congress to be held in Hollywood, Florida on May 3 – 6, 2012. Physicians and researchers interested in presenting should Contact the ICMS.

Topics to be covered at this year's conference are:

Global trends in stem cell medicine: from PRP to culture expanded stem cells
The regulatory environment in the US and its role in international medicine
Clinical translation and the future of stem cell medicine

Abstracts are due to the ICMS by November 1st, 2011.

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Latest Stem Cell News

South Korea to renew stem cell research after scandal
South Korea's president has promised $89m (£56m) in state funds to revive the country's reputation as a world leader in stem cell research. The announcement comes five years after a damaging scandal, when it was found a cloning pioneer had faked research.

Peyton Manning Experimented With Stem Cell Therapy Not Approved In The U.S. Before The Season
Manning flew to Europe before the start of the season for stem cell therapy not approved in the United States to treat his neck injury.

Medistem Receives FDA Approval to Begin Clinical Trial in USA With ERC Stem Cells
MediStem announced today approval from the FDA to initiate a dose-escalating clinical trial in patients with critical limb ischemia using its Endometrial Regenerative Cell (ERC) stem cell product. This approval puts Medistem in a small list of companies that have Federal permission to utilize adult stem cell products under experimental basis in American patients. The company has secured funds from private investors to begin the clinical trial.

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Latest Stem Cell Research

Cell Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
The spontaneous recovery observed in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) is substituted with a later progressive course and failure of endogenous processes of repair and remyelination. Although this is the basic rationale for cell therapy, it is not clear yet to what degree the MS brain is amenable for repair and whether cell therapy has an advantage in comparison to other strategies to enhance endogenous remyelination.

Human peripheral blood derived mesenchymal stem cellsdemonstrate similar characteristics and chondrogenic differentiation potential to bone marrow derived mesenchymalstem cells
The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cartilage repair has generated much interest owing to their multipotentiality. However, their significant presence in peripheral blood (PB) has been a matter of much debate. The objectives of this study are to isolate and characterize MSCs derived from PB and, compare their chondrogenic potential to MSCderived from bone marrow (BM). PB and BM derived MSCs from 20 patients were isolated and characterized. From 2 ml of PB and BM, 5.4 ± 0.6 million and 10.5 ± 0.8 million adherentcells, respectively, were obtained by cell cultures at passage 2. Both PB and BM derivedMSCs were able to undergo tri-lineage differentiation and showed negative expression of CD34 and CD45, but positively expressed CD105, CD166, and CD29. Qualitative and quantitative examinations on the chondrogenic potential of PB and BM derived MSCs expressed similar cartilage specific gene (COMP) and proteoglycan levels, respectively.

Toward a Clinical-Grade Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cellsfrom Human Sources: A Microcarrier-Based Culture System Under Xeno-Free Conditions
The immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) make them attractive therapeutic agents for a wide range of diseases. However, the highly demanding cell doses used in MSC clinical trials (up to millions of cells/kg patient) currently require labor intensive methods and incur high reagent costs. Moreover, the use of xenogenic (xeno) serum-containing media represents a risk of contamination and raises safety concerns. Bioreactor systems in combination with novel xeno-free medium formulations represent a viable alternative to reproducibly achieve a safe and reliable MSC doses relevant for cell therapy. The main goal of the present study was to develop a complete xeno-free microcarrier-based culture system for the efficient expansion of human MSC from two different sources, human bone marrow (BM), and adipose tissue.

Significant clinical, neuropathological and behavioural recovery from acute spinal cord trauma by transplantation of a well-defined somatic stem cell from human umbilical cord blood
Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury and different stem cell types have been grafted into animal models and humans suffering from spinal trauma. Due to inconsistent results, it is still an important and clinically relevant question which stem cell type will prove to be therapeutically effective. Thus far, stem cells of human sources grafted into spinal cord mostly included barely defined heterogeneous mesenchymal stem cell populations derived from bone marrow or umbilical cord blood. Here, we have transplanted a well-defined unrestricted somatic stem cell isolated from human umbilical cord blood into an acute traumatic spinal cord injury of adult immune suppressed rat.

In Vitro Cartilage Tissue Engineering Using Adipose-DerivedExtracellular Matrix Scaffolds Seeded with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
Extracellular matrix (ECM) secreted from the resident cell of tissue is an ideal biomaterial evolved by nature. Cartilage is also built from well-organized ECM components in a gel-like structure with a high collagen and proteoglycan content. Here, we explored cartilage tissue engineering using ECM scaffolds seeded with stem cells. Both scaffolds and stem cellswere isolated from human adipose tissue, which is abundant and easily harvested in thehuman body. The human ECM scaffolds contained various endogenous bioactive factors, including transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1, 8782±4989 pg/g, dry ECM), insulin growth factor-1 (13319±1388 pg/g, dry ECM), basic fibroblast growth factor (82373±9572 pg/g, dry ECM), and vascular endothelial growth factor (25647±2749 pg/g, dry ECM). A composite of ECM and stem cells was prepared and cultured in chondrogenic medium (with 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 or not) for 45 days.

Hypoxia Inhibits Osteogenesis in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells through Direct Regulation of RUNX2 by TWIST
Bone loss induced by hypoxia is associated with various pathophysiological conditions, however, little is known about the effects of hypoxia and related signaling pathways on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Because bone marrow-derivedmesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survive under hypoxic conditions and readily differentiate into osteoblasts by standard induction protocols, they are a good in vitro model to study the effects of hypoxia on osteoblast differentiation.

Detection of embryonic stem cell markers in adult human adiposetissue-derived stem cells
Bone marrow transplantation is already an established therapy, which is now widely used in medicine to treat leukemia, lymphoma, and several inherited blood disorders. The culture of multilineage cells from easily available adipose tissue is another source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, and is referred to as adiposetissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). While ADSCs are being used to treat various conditions, some lacuna exists regarding the specific proteins in these. It was therefore decided to analyze the specific proteins of embryonic cells in ADSCs. Aims: To analyze the specific protein of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in ADSCs.

Changes in human bone marrow fat content associated with changes in hematopoietic stem cell numbers and cytokine levels with aging
Hematological deficiencies increase with aging, including anemias, reduced responses to hematopoietic stress and myelodysplasias. This investigation tested the hypothesis that increased bone marrow (BM) fat content in humans with age was associated with decreased numbers of side population (SP) hematopoietic stem cells, and this decrease correlated with changes in cytokine levels. BM was obtained from the femoral head and trochanteric region of the femur removed at surgery for total hip replacement (N = 100 subjects). In addition, BM from cadavers (N = 36), with no evidence of hip disease, was evaluated for fat content. Whole trabecular marrow samples were ground in a sterile mortar and pestle, and cellularity and lipid content determined. Marrow cells were stained with Hoechst dye and SP profiles were acquired. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured using ELISA. Fat content in the BM of human subjects and cadavers increased with age.

Greater pain improvement for PRP than autologous blood in randomized lateral epicondylitis trial
A platelet rich plasma injection treatment for patients suffering from lateral epicondylitis for a minimum of 3 months was an effective pain reduction measure, according to Greek investigators who compared results of this therapy to autologous blood injection.

Therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells after intrathecal administration by lumbar puncture in a rat model of cerebral ischemia
Stem cell transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stroke. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a potential cell source for clinical application because they can be easily obtained and cultivated with a high proliferative capacity. The safety and efficacy of cell therapy depends on the mode of cell administration. To determine the therapeutic potential of intrathecal administration of MSCs by lumbar puncture (LP), the authors administrated human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) intrathecally into the lumbar spinal cord or intravenously into the tail vein in a rat model of stroke, and then investigated whether hUCB-MSCs could enter the brain, survive, and improve poststroke neurological functional recovery.

Differential gene expression profiling of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during adipogenic development
Adipogenesis is the developmental process by which mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) differentiate into pre-adipocytes and adipocytes. The aim of the study was to analyze the developmental strategies of human bone marrow MSC developing into adipocytes over a defined time scale.

Use of Platelet Rich Plasma Gel on Wound Healing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Autologous platelet rich plasma is an advanced wound therapy used in hard-to-heal acute and chronic wounds. To better understand the use and clinical outcomes of the therapy, a systematic review of the published literature in cutaneous wounds was performed. Electronic and hand searches for randomized controlled trials and comparative group studies using platelet rich plasma therapy in cutaneous wounds and published over the last 10 years was conducted. Eligible studies compared the treatment to standard care or other interventions. All citations were screened and eligible studies were assessed for validity, quality, and bias using accepted scoring methods. The primary outcomes were effect of platelet rich plasma and control wound care on wound healing and related healing measurements.

Limbal stem cell transplantation shows high rate of success over long term
Long-term results of limbal stem cell transplantation show a high rate of success, opening the future of stem cell-based therapy in a number of different disease areas.

Objective of this study is to evaluate the new bone formation in bony defects after placement of
PRP and its efficacy of regenerative potential.

Intramyocardial bone marrow stem cell transplantation during coronary artery bypass surgery: A meta-analysis
A systematic review and meta-analysis of availablepublications regarding the efficacy and safety of intramyocardialbone marrow stem cell transplantation during coronary arterybypass grafting.

New Class of Stem Cell-Like Cells Discovered in Spinal Cord Offers Possibilities for Spinal Cord Repair
The Allen Institute for Brain Science announced today the discovery of a new class of cells in the spinal cord that act like neural stem cells, offering a fresh avenue in the search for therapies to treat spinal cord injury and disease. The published collaborative study, authored by scientists from the University of British Columbia, the Allen Institute for Brain Science and The Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital at McGill University and titled "Adult Spinal Cord Radial Glia Display a Unique Progenitor Phenotype," appears in the open access journalPLoS One.

University of Massachusetts Medical School Study Say Midbodies Build Up in Stem Cells and Cancer Cells
Cellular structures known as midbodies, formed during cell division, appear to accumulate in stem cells and cancer cells, hinting at a potential function for these once-disregarded organelles. Midbodies, once considered the rubbish of cell division, might have a function beyond their role in getting daughter cells to separate. Researchers show in today’s Nature Cell Biology that stem cells and cancer cells collect used midbodies, whereas differentiated cells digest the organelle through autophagy.

Join the ICMS and Help Define the Future of Stem Cell Medicine

The ICMS is a physician guided international 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization dedicated to patient safety and the protection of the practice of medicine and physician education through the production of global guidelines for the practice of cell based medicine. Membership in the ICMS is available to physicians, scientists and other healthcare professionals who are dedicated to the advancement of the field of adult stem cell medicine. Lend your voice and support. Join Now.

Currents in Stem Cell Medicine is a bi-monthly publication of the ICMS.